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PLANET SUPERLATIVES


MERCURY:

  • Fastest orbiting planet
  • Longest (synodic) day
  • Least massive planet
  • Smallest planet
  • Fastest revolution in solar system
  • Planet nearest to sun
  • Maximum diurnal range of temperature

VENUS:

  • Most circular orbit
  • Slowest sidereal rotation
  • Hottest planet
  • Brightest planet
  • Evening star
  • Morning star
  • Nearest planet to earth
  • Earth’s twin
  • Veiled planet
  • Planet with revolution and rotation periods same
  • Rotates from E -> W
  • Clockwise rotation
  • Called “goddess of love and beauty”

EARTH:

  • Greatest average density
  • Blue planet
  • Gaia
  • Terra
Age 4500 million years
Mass 588 * 10 tons
Volume 1.083 * 1024 litres
Mean density 5.518 kg/litre
Shape An oblate spheroid or a geiod
Radius of earth 6400 km
Total surface area 510100500 sq. km
Land area (29%) 148400000 sq. km
Water area (71%) 361300000 sq. km
Rotation time 23h 56 min 4 sec
Revolution time 365 days 6 hrs 9 min 9 sec
Orbit speed about the sun 29.8 km/sec
Mean surface temperature 14 C
Highest temperature recorded 58 C Al-Aziziyah
Mean distance from sun 149598500 km
Deepest ocean point  11034 m, Mariana Trench (pacific ocean)
Time coordinate of earth Longitude
Temperature coordinate of earth Latitudes
Longest day in northern hemisphere June 21
Shortest day in the northern hemisphere December 22
Equal day and night in the northern hemisphere March 21 and September 23
Longest day in the southern hemisphere December 22
Shortest day in the southern hemispheres June 21
Equal day and night in the southern hemisphere March 21 and September 23
Coldest place Vostok station ( Antartica )
Driest place Anca ( Chile )
Wettest place Mwasynaram ( Meghalaya, India )

MARS:

  • Tallest mountain
  • Red planet
  • Length of day nearly the same as that of earth
  • Angle of inclination nearly the same as that of earth
  • Period of rotation nearly the same as that of earth

JUPITER:

  • Largest planet
  • Most massive planet
  • Fastest sidereal rotation
  • Most moons
  • Planet with largest moon
  • Strongest magnetic field
  • Shortest (synodic) day
  • Deepest oceans
  • Called “lord of the heavens”

SATURN:

  • Lowest density planet
  • Planet with maximum number of satellites
  • Second largest planet

URANUS:

  • Rotational pole closest to ecliptic
  • Green planet
  • Rotates from N -> S

NEPTUNE:

  • Slowest orbiting planet
  • Coldest planet
  • Farthest planet from sun
  • Slowest revolution in solar system
  • First planet found by mathematical prediction

PLUTO:

  • Becomes dwarf planet from august 2006

SOME GENERAL FACTS:

  • Planets with no moons = mercury, venus
  • Biggest asteroid = ceres
  • Biggest comet = centaur 10199
  • Biggest constellation = hydra(sea serpent)
  • Biggest satellite = gannymede
  • Smallest satellite = deimos (mars)
  • Closest star to sun = proxima centauri
  • Only satellite with an atmosphere like earth = titan
  • Brightest star outside solar system = Sirius (also called as dog star)

SUN:

Average distance from the earth 149598900 km
Diameter 1391980 km
Temperature of the core 15000000 C
Rotation speed 25.38 days (in equator) 33 days (in poles)
Time taken by sunlight to reach earth 8 min 20 sec

 

MOON:

Distance from earth 382200 km
Diameter 3475 km
Mass (with respect to earth) 1:8.1
Ratio of gravitational pull of moon and earth 1:6
Highest mountain 35000 ft (Leibnitz mountain)
Time taken by moonlight to reach earth 1.3sec
Rotation speed 3680 kmph
Speed of revolution around earth 3680 kmph
Revolution period around earth 27 days, 7 h, 43 min
Rotation period 27 day 7 h 43 min
Atmosphere Absent
Part of moon not visible to earth 41%
Maximum distance from earth (apogee) 406000 km
Minimum distance from earth (perigee) 364000 km
Circumference 11000 km
 

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