INDIAN POLITY – Historical Background
REGULATING ACT OF 1773:
The Regulating Act of 1773 was the first step taken by the British Government to control the activities of East India British Company. The Act includes the creation of Executive Council, which includes four members in it. The members of the Executive Councils are Barwell, Clavering, Philips Francis (wanted to replace Hastings) and Monson (Later replaced by Wheeler). Bombay and Madras Presidencies comes under the control of Bengal. The title “Governor of Bengal” has been changed to “Governor General of Bengal”. So as per changing, Warren Hastings became the First Governor General of Bengal. The tenure of Governor General is five years. In 1774, Supreme Court was created in Calcutta. Sir Elijah Impeh Became the First Chief Justice of that Supreme Court.
PITTS INDIA ACT OF 1784:
This Act separated the activities of Board into Commercial functions and Political functions. A new Double Government system was introduced first time.
CHARTER ACT OF 1833:
The Governor General of Bengal has been changed to Governor General of India. So William Bentinck becomes the First Governor General of India. The Charter Act of 1833 completes the activities of East Indian Company’s commercial activities. One more Law member was added in the Governor’s Council. Macaulay was that member. This act abolished the slave method. A new Law Commission was constituted under the Chairmanship of Macaulay.
CHARTER ACT OF 1853:
For the first time Civil Servants was recruited in an open competition system. In 1854 Macaulay Committee was appointed. Also for the first time, Indians appointed in the legislative council.
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT 1858:
In Government of India Act, East Indian Company was abolished. The powers of East Indian Company were transferred to British Queen. Governor General of India was abolished and changed it as the Viceroy of India. Thus Lord Canning becomes the First Viceroy of India. Also this act ended the system of double government.
INDIAN COUNCIL ACT 1861:
This act becomes an important role in the constitution of India. Viceroy Lord Canning nominated three Indians in to the Viceroy’s Executive Council as non-official members. The members are Raja of Benaras, Maharaja of Patiala and Sir Dinkar Rao. Also Lord Canning introduced the “Portfolio System” in 1859.
INDIAN COUNCIL ACT 1909:
This Act is also called as “Minto-Morley Reforms”. Lord Morley was the Secretary of the State. Lord Minto was the Viceroy of the India. The number of members in the Viceroy’s Executive Council is increased to 60 from 16. Also the Indians entered in the Viceroy’s Council. Satyendra Prasad Sinha was the first Indian entered in the Viceroy’s Executive Council. He was appointed as Law member. This Act also introduced the Communal Representation Method for Muslims. Therefore Muslims had separate electoral representation. Only Muslim voters vote for Muslims. Thus Lord Minto called as “Father of Communal Electorate”
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT 1919:
On 1917, August 20 British Government said that they introduce the responsible government in India gradually. This act is also called as “Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms”. This Act comes in 1919, but this came into force only on 1921. In this act Diarchy was introduced. Bicameralism and Direct Elections also introduced in India for first time. Separate electorate system was further established to Sikhs, Anglo-Indians. Based on property, tax or education, people get the status of voting. Based on the recommendations of Lee Commission, the Central Public Service Commission was created. Central Budget and Provincial Budget was separated. Election Commission was set up on the basis of the Act.
REFORMS ENQUIRY COMMISSION (OR) MUDDIMAN COMMITTEE:
Muddiman committee or Reforms Enquiry Commission was set up in 1924. This committee was set up for enquiry the diarchy system which is introduced in 1919 Act.
SIMON COMMISSION 1927:
A seven member statutory commission was setup under the chairmanship of Sir John Simon. This commission was also called as “Simon Commission”. This Commission was boycotted by Indians, because all the members in the commission were belongs to British. The Commission submitted its report on 1930. The Commission recommends abolition of diarchy, extension of responsible government in the provinces, establishment of a federation of British India and Princely States and continuation of communal electorate.
NEHRU REPORT – 1928:
Important points of Nehru reports are – need of dominion status, want full freedom; federal form of government in entire India, communal based electoral system must be abolished, recognition of Fundamental Rights, bicameralism in central, Supreme Court is the higher court of India and religious freedom. But the Nehru Report was rejected by Jinnah. He introduced 14 Points from his side.
GOVERNMENT OF INDIA ACT 1935:
The Government of India act is a lengthy and a detailed one, which contains 321 sections and 19 sections. This act includes establishment of All India Federation, divided the powers into Central, Provincial and Concurrent List, abolition of diarchy in provinces and introduced provincial autonomy in provinces, diarchy was introduced in central, introduced bicameralism in six provinces out of eleven provinces, abolition of Council of India, creation of reserve bank of India, creation of Federal Public Service Commission and Joint Public Service Commission, Federal Court was set up in 1937.
INDIAN INDEPENDENCE ACT OF 1947:
On February 20, 1947 the British Prime Minister Clement Atlee declared that the British rule in India would be end by June 30, 1948. On June 3, 1947 the Viceroy Lord Mountbatten announced a plan. This plan was called as June 3rd Plan or Mountbatten Plan. The plan was separation of British India into India and Pakistan. This plan was accepted by both Congress and Muslim League. A Boundary Commission was constituted under the chairmanship of Radcliff. The Radcliff Boundary Commission decides the boundaries between India and Pakistan.
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